By Laurel Sterling, MA, RD, CDN
On October 6, 2018, CNN posted an article with the headline: Vitamin D supplements don’t improve bone health, major study finds. Here we go again, with another confusing article. It stated, “Vitamin D supplements do not improve bone mineral density or prevent fractures or falls in adults, finds a large study that advises health professionals to stop recommending the supplements to most patients.”
The article further went on to say, “The research, which was published in the Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, analyzed data from 81 randomized controlled trials (involving more than 53,000 people) that studied whether the over-the-counter supplement helped in fractures, falls, and bone density. The team concluded that vitamin D does not prevent fractures or falls, or have a meaningful effect on bone mineral density, concluding that there is little justification in taking it to "maintain or improve musculoskeletal health," adding that there is no need for more trials to explore this.
We see this a lot, where newer findings prove or disprove prior research; but saying there is no need to explore this more is quite a strong statement. What we as consumers need to do is dig deeper into the study. Who is funding the research? Was the study large enough? Did they use a poorly absorbable form? Were the individuals too ill to see a benefit? Were they using enough of the supplement to see a benefit? What was the length of the study? This one in particular looked at 81 studies that they chose, and we don’t know which ones or the lengths of those studies.
Dr. Robert Clarke, a professor of epidemiology and public health at the University of Oxford criticized this study saying, “The report included all available trials of vitamin D, but such trials included too few participants, used an insufficient dose of vitamin D, and had an insufficient duration of treatment.” These are all crucial variables used as reliability and validity tests in research. “So, it is too soon to suggest making changes to health recommendations on vitamin D for bone health based on this study," he went on to say.
Research has found that vitamin D promotes healthy growth and development; supports teeth, bone, and muscle health; assists with healthy immune and cardiovascular systems; and aids in a healthier mood. When it comes to bone building, the bone matrix is very complex. It’s comprised of calcium, collagen fibers, inorganic salts, and many minerals. Vitamin D3 is important for calcium transport and absorption. Another very important vitamin in the bone building process is vitamin K2 as MK-7.
It’s critical for the formation of a strong bone matrix, as it plays a main part in carboxylating and activating specific proteins (matric GLA and osteocalcin) that are involved in bone building. These vitamins work synergistically along with other minerals and calcium, in assisting in the bone building process. The scientific research is ever increasing regarding vitamin D and the crucial role it plays in our overall health and wellbeing also. Contrary to what was mentioned in the article, just search PubMed or The Vitamin D Counsel’s website to see all of the research and benefits of vitamin D.
It was also mentioned at the end that “Dr. Clifford Rosen, professor of medicine at the Tufts University School of Medicine and senior scientist at Maine Medical Center, told CNN in a previous report, that it's generally better to get vitamin D from the sun and food than from supplements.” Although the body can produce vitamin D when ultraviolet rays hit the skin, which triggers vitamin D synthesis, conditions need to be near perfect for this to happen.
Many children like adults do not get enough time in the sun during certain crucial times of the year to make and maintain adequate 25(OH)D levels. The 25(OH)D is the form of D that is tested in the bloodstream. It’s the serum form of vitamin D, and the best indicator of vitamin D status. In addition to lack of time in the sun, it is also difficult to synthesize adequate amounts of vitamin D from sunlight due to sunscreens, latitude, time of year, color of skin, and more.
As far as sourcing vitamin D from our foods, there are not many naturally occurring dietary sources of vitamin D. Vitamin D can be found in the flesh of fatty fish like salmon (approximately 500 IU in 3 oz), mackerel, and tuna. It’s also in fish liver oils, as the D3 form. Some mushrooms provide the D2 form, which still needs to be converted by the body to the most bioavailable D3 form. Most of the dietary vitamin D comes from fortified foods such as orange juice, non-dairy beverages, egg yolks (from vitamin D supplemented hens), and in some dairy (milk, yogurt, and cheese). Therefore, many look to supplemental vitamin D as an excellent addition.
This article proves that we as consumers nowadays, perhaps more than ever, need to be our own investigators and not believe everything just because it is printed. We need to dig deeper than face value and look at all the information in order to make informed decisions.
by Laurel Sterling, MA, RD, CDN
Carlson offers a variety of vitamin K products – and I like them all for different reasons. K Complete provides vitamin K1, K2 as MK-4, and K2 as MK-7 in a single soft gel. Our body utilizes all three vitamin K forms to achieve optimal cardiovascular, bone, and blood health. K Complete is a great option to "cover all of our bases" for vitamin K requirements. K Complete provides 500 mcg of vitamin K1, 1.5 mg of MK-4, and 45 mcg of MK-7. For those who want more MK-4 or MK-7, they are offered in various strengths of soft gels and capsules.
Carlson also offers MK-7, with or without vitamin D3, in drop form for adults and children. Many people these days are savvy enough in their supplement regime to take calcium and vitamin D to support bone health, but few realize there's another important nutrient to promote bone and cardiovascular health: K2.
Vitamin D3 plays an important role in promoting healthy calcium absorption and creating bone building proteins. MK-7 then activates these proteins, which help bind calcium to the bone matrix. A healthy intake of MK-7 in our younger years can help build a foundation for optimal bone and heart health.
As you can see, each formulation of vitamin K that Carlson has created is important. Which one is best for you depends on your individual needs. Whichever you choose, remember that they are fat-soluble vitamins, so they're best taken with a meal that includes healthy fats, for the best absorption.
by Karen Roth, MSNC
Foods that are healthy for our skin include alkaline foods, like vegetables, fruits, olive oil, or herbal and green teas. We can also combat free radicals with powerful antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, quercetin, beta-carotene, and selenium. Papaya, bell peppers, and broccoli are high in vitamin C. Foods high in vitamin E include sunflower seeds, olives, and almonds. Brightly colored sweet potatoes and carrots provide beta-carotene. And foods that are high in selenium include tuna, shrimp, salmon, or sardines. If you don't get enough of these nutrient-rich foods in your diet, a supplement may be a great option.
Essential fatty acids, such as those found in fish oil, can also promote skin health. Look for the beneficial omega-3s EPA and DHA. And, last but not least, sufficient water intake is critical. Filtered water not only hydrates the skin, but also flushes toxins out of the body. Aim for half your body weight in ounces. If you weigh 140 pounds, your water intake should be 70 ounces.
Healthy, glowing skin starts from within. And you have it within your power to feed your skin with healthy, skin-loving nutrients.
by Laurel Sterling, MA, RD, CDN
Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin group that includes vitamins K1 and K2. Recent research shows how important vitamin K is for people of all ages. What was once a vitamin recognized mainly for promoting healthy blood clotting is now understood to also promote bone and cardiovascular system health.
Vitamins K1 and K2 have slight variations in their chemical molecular structures and work slightly different in our body. K1, known as phylloquinone, is found primarily in green, leafy vegetables and is the most abundant form of vitamin K in our diet. It works to promote healthy blood coagulation, and supports strong bones. Our body converts the majority of K1 into K2.
Vitamin K2 is typically less abundant in our diet, as it's found in animal products and fermented soybeans. Vitamin K2 occurs in several forms; however, the two that appear to have the most biological activity are MK-4 (menatetrenon-4) and MK-7 (menaquinone-7).
MK-4 is more widely distributed in our body's tissues compared to other forms of K2. The MK-7 form is found to be better absorbed and to stay in the body longer. Most of the population, including adults and kids, can benefit from a vitamin K supplement, and especially those who eat little green, leafy vegetables or who have had their gallbladder or sections of their colon removed.
Vitamin K is valuable for the entire family. To help ensure you and your family get the nutrients needed for optimal cardiovascular, teeth, and bone health, consider adding vitamin K to your daily routine.
by Karen Roth, MSNC
We usually think of bone-supporting nutrients as we age, but we should be thinking about them during early development. Childhood through our teenage years set the foundation for healthy bones as we age. Key ingredients that can contribute to strong, healthy bones are calcium, vitamin D3, and vitamin K2.
Calcium-rich foods include milk, yogurt, collard greens, spinach, and turnip greens. It may be challenging to take in enough of these foods to allow a sufficient amount of calcium to be absorbed. Additionally, greens are not typically a food loved by children. A children's calcium supplement can help ensure your child is getting enough of this important bone-building mineral.
Vitamin D3 helps maintain normal calcium levels and is essential for the healthy absorption and utilization of calcium. It also helps with healthy calcification of bones and teeth in children. Vitamin D3 is found in few foods except in cases where a processed food has been fortified with it, and those foods are usually fortified with vitamin D2.
Vitamin D3 is the active form that's more absorbable. Getting vitamin D can be difficult because of sunscreen use and the amount of time kids spend outdoors. That's where supplementation comes in. Children's vitamin D3 supplements are commonly found as convenient, great-tasting gummies and drops.
Vitamin K is also vital for strong bones and healthy heart function. It's essential that children get enough calcium through diet and supplements, but too much calcium without vitamin K is not ideal. Vitamin K2 plays an important role in directing calcium into our bones and teeth. Foods such as kale, spinach, collard greens, Swiss chard, and Brussels sprouts are loaded with vitamin K.
Just one cup of kale delivers 1,327 percent of the daily requirement. However, if your kid does like greens, add a bit of olive oil to them to make the vitamin K more absorbable, or opt for a vitamin K nutritional supplement.
The Daily Dose blog features health and wellness articles from Senior Nutritionist & Educator Jolie Root, LPN,LNC; Nutritionist & Educator Laurel Sterling, MA, RDN, CDN; and Featured Guest Blogger Karen Roth, MSNC. Other guest bloggers will also join us.
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